Biotechnology is designated as one of the priorities of the scientific and educational activities of the Siberian Federal University.
Biological technologies provide obtaining of useful products for various fields of human activity, and this obtaining can be managed.
These technologies are based on the use of catalytic capacity of biological agents and systems - micro-organisms, viruses, plant and animal cells and tissues, as well as extracellular substances and components of cells.
Currently, the development and exploitation of biotechnology, has an important role in activity of almost all countries.
Achieving the superiority in biotechnology is one of the central tasks in the economic policies of developed countries.
The structure of the Institute of Basic Biology and Biotechnology for the concept of improving education and training for biotechnologists world, armed with the latest knowledge to the development of biotechnology highly-closed rotation biotechnologies of target products synthesis and waste recycling, reproduction of food, raw materials and energy resources, development of new environmentally friendly biomaterials, tools and technologies for cell and tissue engineering, in 2008, begins training for a new specialty «Microbiology and biotechnology», the head of this trend - Professor T.G. Volova.
The man used the biotechnology for many thousands of years: people engaged in brewing, baked bread, made dairy products, used fermentation to produce medicinal substances and recycling.
But only the latest methods of biotechnology, including genetic engineering methods, based on the work with recombinant DNA, led to the «biotechnology boom», which we are witnessing nowadays.
The latest technologies of genetic engineering make the improving of traditional biotechnological processes possible, as well as obtaining valuable products by new, previously inaccessible, ways.
In modern biotechnology, in accordance with the specific field of application it’s appropriate to provide a separate series of sections as follows:
> Industrial microbiology;
> Medical Biotechnology;
> Technology bioenergetics,
> Agricultural biotechnology;
> Engineering enzymology;
> Cellular and genetic engineering;
> Environmental Biotechnology.
Today, biotechnology is rapidly brought to the position of scientific and technological progress.
Fundamental studies of life events at the cellular and molecular levels have led to the emergence of fundamentally new technologies and the acquisition of new products.
Traditional biotechnological processes based on fermentation are supplemented by new efficient process for obtaining protein, amino acids, antibiotics, enzymes, vitamins, organic acids, etc.
The era of modern biotechnology, related to the receipt of vaccines, hormones, interferons, etc. has come.
The major challenge facing the biotechnology today is increasing the productivity of agricultural crops and animals, creating new breeds of species that are cultivated in agriculture, environmental protection and waste management, the creation of new clean energy conversion and obtaining minerals.
Viability and effectiveness of biotechnological processes in various spheres of human activity, from receiving food and beverages to the reproduction of clean energy and new materials due to their compact, while large-scale, high level of mechanization and labor productivity.
These processes can be controlled, regulated and automated.
The biotechnological processes in contrast to the chemical processes are realized in «soft» conditions at normal pressure, the active reaction and low temperature environment, they are less polluting wastes and by-products, there is little dependent on climatic and weather conditions. They do not require large land area, there is no need for pesticides and herbicides.
Therefore, biotechnology as a whole and its individual parts are among the most priority directions of scientific and technological progress and it is a striking example of «high-technologies». And the development prospects of many industries are linked with «high-technologies».
Biological technologies are currently in a phase of rapid development, but their level of development is largely determined by scientific and technological capabilities.
All developed countries in the world regard the biotechnology as one of the most important modern industries, considering it a key method for the reconstruction of industry in accordance with the requirements of time and take measures to stimulate its development.